University of California at Santa Cruz

Baskin School of Engineering

EE178 Spring 2008



Reminder that next week June 3rd will be a review lecture for the final. The final will be on June 5th,in class, on the last day.

Solutions to Quiz6 Posted

Lec 17 18 19 posted


HW7 from "Solid State Electronic Devices" due 29, May, Thursday, beginning of class. Problems:

7.12, 7.18, 7.19, 7.20, 7.23, 8.1, 8.4, 8.6

HW6 from "Solid State Electronic Devices" due 22, May, Thursday, beginning of class. Problems:

7.3, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.7, 7.9

HW5 from "Solid State Electronic Devices", Due May 15 Thursday being of class

6.12, 6.13, 6.18, 6.19, 6.20, 6.21, 6.27

HW4 from "Solid State Electronic Devices" Not required to hand in, but will be responsible for the final. Problems:

6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.6, 6.8, 6.9, 6.11

HW3 from "Solid State Electronic Devices" due April 24th, Thursday, beginning of class. Problems:

5.16, 5.23, 5.25, 5.27, 5.38. 5.40

HW2 from "Solid State Electronic Devices" due April 17th, Thursday, beginning of class. Problems:

4.5, 4.9, 4.10, 4.13, 4.14, 4.15

HW1 from "Solid State Electronic Devices" Due Thursday 4/10/2005 at the beginning of lecture. Problems:

3.2, 3.3, 3.10, 3.11, 3.13, 3.16, 3.17

Take care to understand and draw proper simplified band diagrams, understand these we will be using them. Also be careful to consider whether velocity saturation would be expected or not. Think about what the results of your problems mean...Also be sure to try the self quiz questions, try them first and then check, the answers are in the back. Be sure that you understand them, . If not be sure to ask me, these have a tendency to show up on in-class quizzes and tests.

Solutions to HW and Quiz

Solution to Quiz 7

Quiz 7 Problem

Solution to Quiz 6

Quiz 6 Problem

Solution to Quiz 5

Quiz 5 Problem

Solution to Quiz 4

Quiz 4 Problem

Solution to Quiz 3

Solution to Quiz 1

Solution to HW7

Solution to HW6

Solution to HW5

Solution to HW4

Solution to HW3A

Solution to HW3B

Solution to HW2

Solution to HW1

Note: There are extra solutions in HW3A and HW3B that are not due or required in the HW

Lecture Notes

Summary Notes

Lec1_Intro to the Class

Lec2_Carrier Modeling

Lec3_Carrier Action

Lec6_PN Electrostatics

Lec7_PN IV

7LEC_PN IV Summary

8LEC_PN Rev Bias

9LEC_PN Small Signal

10LEC_Metal Contects










Interesting and Useful Links:

Course Text Companion Website Click on the Errata Link for the Important errors in the text

Transistorized! History of the Transistor and More.

Semiconductor Physics Demonstration Applets Excellent Animations of Semiconductor Device Physics

More Semiconductor Demonstration Applets From University of Iowa-Winston Chan

Britney Spears Guide to Semiconductor Physics Emphasis on Optoelectronics

The link to the cool 3-d plots for the MOSFETs is here 3-D-MOSFETs

Avalanche Photodiode

Helpful links on Hyperbolic Functions:

Hyperbolic Trigonometry, Hyperbolic Trigonometry Survival 101, MathWorld

Historic Links

Transistor Museum

Course Description


This course reviews the fundamental principles, materials, and design and introduces the operation of several semiconductor devices. Topics include the motion of charge carriers in solids, equilibrium statistics, the electronic structure of solids, doping, the pn junction, the junction transistor, the Schottky diode, the field-effect transistor, the light-emitting diode, and the photodiode. Students are NOT billed for a materials fee. Prerequisite(s): Electrical Engineering 145 and Computer Engineering 171 or Electrical Engineering 171. May be repeated for credit.

Course Instructor

Peter Walters

Rm129 Baskin Engineering Building

Phone: (707) 481-0811


Office hours: 5:00 to 6:00pm Tuesdays and Thursdays OR by appointment

Lecture Times and Location

Hours: 6:00 to 7:45pm Tuesday and Thursday

Class Room: Porter Room 249

Discussion sections

Will be held on request


Chao Lu


Office: E2 579

Hours: 1:00 to 2:00pm Monday and Wednesday OR by appointment

Required Textbook

Solid State Electronics Devices, 6th Edition

Ben Streetman, University of Texas, Austin
Sanjay Banerjee, University of Texas, Austin

ISBN: 0-13-025538-6
Publisher: Prentice Hall
Copyright: 2000
Format: Cloth; 558 pp
Published: 11/08/1999

Recommended Reading

Crystal Fire: The Invention of the Transistor and the Birth of the Information Age (Sloan Technology Series)

Michael Riordan, Lillian Hoddeson; Paperback

1998 / paperback / ISBN 0-393-31851-6
1997 / hardcover / ISBN 0-393-04124-7
6" x H" / 352 pages / Science

Alternative Texts

Sometimes when we have problems understanding a concept it is useful to consult other texts for alternate explanations. Here are some other books you might find useful that are more or less at the same level as this class:

1. Robert Pierret, "Semiconductor Device Fundamentals", Addison-Wesley.

2. Muller and Kamins, "Device Electronics for Integrated Circuits", 2nd Edition, Wiley.

3. Semiconductor Physics & Devices, Irwin, by D. A. Newman

4. Sze, "Physics of Semiconductor Devices", Wiley.

5. Singh, "Semiconductor Devices: an Introduction", McGraw-Hill.

6. Modular Series on Solid State Device, Addison-Wesley

Volume I: Pierret, "Semiconductor Fundamentals"
Volume II: Neudeck, "PN Junction Diode"
Volume III: Neudeck, "Bipolar Junction Transistor"
Volume IV: Pierret, "Field Effect Devices"

Homework Assignments

Homework will be assigned and collected during class sessions, and will generally follow a weekly sequence. Solutions are posted on the web site on the date of collection. Thus, late homework will not be accepted or graded. Homework is graded in terms of it being complete, well organized, readable and showing evidence of thoughtful attention to the problem itself. Sloppy submissions will not be considered for grading.

Grading Method

The course will not be graded on a curve. Well it also won't be graded solely on an absolute scale either. It will be a combination of the two. It is possible for everyone to earn an A or for everyone to earn an F. You have to get a passing grade on the final in order to pass the class; this will likely be set at around 50% unless there is some issues with the final. Your final course grade thus depends only slightly on anyone else's performance. Grad students will be graded separately from undergrads so don't worry about excessive unfair competition.

Tentative Grading Scheme:


Course Element

Percentage of Course Grade


20 %


30 %

Final Exam

40 %


10 %


100 %

Study Suggestions for EE178 (and Upperdivision Engineering Courses in general)

1) Do the reading before each lecture, the readings are listed for each lecture in the schedule below.

2) Read with a pencil and paper and try to do all the examples before you read their solutions. This is very valuable. I often get compalints bout there not being enough examples, this is the best way to get the most out of the ones that there are.

3) Seriously engage with all the homework problems, try them all before you work with someone else. There is no substitute for doing lots of problems to learn this material.

4) Make a copy of your homework and check your result against the solutions. Go back and figure out what you didn't understand. Do this before I figure it out on a test...

5) This class is challenging and moves rapidly, falling behind is fatal. The results from one week will be used the next.

6) You need to be able to figure out what you don't understand and then ask your fellow students or the instructor for help if you cannot figure it out on your own.

7) Take notes and review them before lecture.

8) You are encouraged to work in groups and discuss about the homework assignments. However, each has to write his/her own solution and fully understand them.


Course Expectations

Learning occurs by the active involvement of the student. Consequently there will be many different opportunities for active learning, such as cooperative problem-solving. The student is expected to come to class prepared to think and learn. The lecture period will be used to establish fundamental concepts.

During lecture time, you will be asked to participate in solving problems. Always bring your calculator to lecture. It also is helpful to bring your textbook along.

To get the most out of this class, you need to read the assigned sections in the textbook before coming to class. There will be quizzes in the lab and lecture sessions.

Academic Dishonesty

Working Together

You are encouraged to work in groups and discuss about the homework assignments. However, each has to write his/her own solution and fully understand them.

Academic Dishonesty

Any confirmed academic dishonesty including but not limited to copying homeworks or cheating on exams, will result in a no-pass or failing grade and automatic referral of the case of suspected policy violation to your college for further disciplinary action. You are encouraged to read the campus policies regarding academic integrity. Examples of cheating include (but are not limited to):

* Sharing results or other information during an examination.
* Working on an exam before or after the official time allowed.
* Submitting homework that is not your own work.
* Reading another student's homework solution before it is due.
* Allowing someone else to read your homework solution before the assignment is due.

If there is any question as to whether a given action might be construed as cheating, see me before you engage in any such action.

Top of page

Tentative Schedule

The reading assignment should be completed prior to the lecture, come prepared for quizzes about the previous lectures.

Quizzes will be unannounced and be given at the beginning of a lecture. They cannot be made up if you are late for class or can't make it to class for any other reason.




Reading Assignment



Introduction to the Class

3.1 Bonding Forces and Energy Bands in Solids
3.1.1 Bonding Forces in Solids
3.1.2 Energy Bands
3.1.3 Metals, Semiconductors, and Insulators
3.1.4 Direct and Indirect Semiconductors
3.2 Charge Carriers in Semiconductors
3.2.1 Electrons and Holes
3.2.2 Effective Mass
3.2.3 Intrinsic Material
3.2.4 Extrinsic Material
3.3 Carrier Concentrations
3.3.1 The Fermi level
3.3.2 Electron and Hole Concentrations at Equilibrium
3.3.3 Temperature Dependence of Carrier Concentrations
3.3.4 Compensation and Space Charge Neutrality


3.1, 3.1.1, 3.1.2, 3.1.3, 3.1.4, 3.2, 3.2.1, 3.2.2, 3.2.3, 3.2.4, 3.3, 3.3..1, 3.3.2, 3.3.3, 3.3.4

Crystal Viewer

AlGaAs Energy Bands

Fermi Function

Fermi Level and Carrier Concentration

Fermi level-Density of States and Carrier Concentration

Fermi-Dirac vs Maxwell-Bolltzman Statistics



Overview of Semiconductor Technology

History of the invention of the Transistor

Review related materials from EE 145, and Ch.1 and Ch.2 in Streetman.



3.4 Drift of Carriers in Electric and Magnetic Fields
3.4.1 Conductivity and Mobility
3.4.2 Drift and Resistance
4.3.4 Photoconductive Devices
3.4.3 Effects of Temperature and Doping on Mobility
3.4.4 High-Field Effects
3.4.5 The Hall Effect

3.4, 3.4.1, 3.4.2, 4.3.4, 3.4.3, 3.4.4, 3.4.5



4.1 Optical Absorption
4.2 Luminescence
4.3 Carrier Lifetime and Phtoconductivity
4.3.1 Direct Recombination of Electrons and Holes
4.3.2 Indirect Recombination: Trapping
4.3.3 Steady State Carrier Generation; Quasi-Fermi Levels

4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.3.1, 4.3.2, 4.3.3




4.4 Diffusion of Carriers
4.4.1 Diffusion Processes
4.4.2 Diffusion and Drift of Carriers; Built-in Fields
4.4.3 Diffusion and Recombination; The Continuity Equation
4.4.4 Steady State Carrier Injection; Diffusion Length
4.4.5 The Haynes-Shockley Experiment

4.4, 4.4.1, 4.4.2, 4.4.3, 4.4.4, 4.4.5, 4.4.6

Haynes Shockley Expt



5.2 Equilibrium Condition,
5.2.1 The Contact Potential
5.2.2 Equilibrium Fermi Levels
5.2.3 Space Charge at a Junction

5.1, 5.2, 5.2.1, 5.2.2, 5.2.3

Formation of a PN Junction

Space Charge and Electric Field

Currents Approaching Equilibrium




5.3. Forward- and Reverse-Biased Junctions; Steady State Conditions
5.3.1 Qualitative Description of Current Flow at a Junction
5.3.2 Carrier Injection
5.3.2 Carrier Injection

5.3, 5.3.1, 5.3.2, 5.3.3

Biased PN Junction

Space Charge & Field


5.3.3 Reverse Bias
5.4 Reverse-Bias Breakdown
5.4.1 Zener Breakdown
5.4.2 Avalanche Breakdown
5.4.3 Rectifiers
5.4.4 The Breakdown Diode

5.4, 5.4.1, 5.4.2, 5.4.3, 5.4.4


5.5 Trasient and A-C Conditions
5.5.1 Time Variation of Stored Charges
5.5.2 Reverse Recovery Transient
5.5.3 Switching Diodes
5.5.4 Capacitance of p-n Junctions

5.5, 5.5.1, 5.5.2, 5.5.3, 5.5.4




5.7 Metal-Semiconductor Junctions
5.7.1 Schottky Barrier
5.7.2 Rectifying Contacts
5.7.3 Ohmic Contacts
5.7.4 Typical Schottky Barriers

5.7, 5.7.1, 5.7.2, 5.7.3, 5.7.4

Schottky Diode


6.1 Transistor Operation
6.1.1 The Load Line
6.1.2 Amplification and Switching
6.2 The Junction FET
6.2.1 Pinch-off and Saturation
6.2.2 Gate Control
6.2.3 Current-Voltage Charateristics
6.3 The Metal-Semiconductor FET
6.3.1 Structure

6.1, 6.1.1, 6.1.2, 6.2, 6.2.1, 6.2.2, 6.2.3, 6.3.1, 6.3.2, 6.3.3




6.4 The Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor FET
6.4.1 Basic Operation
6.4.2 The Ideal MOS Capacitor
6.4.3 Effects of Real Surfaces (Flatband voltage)
6.4.4 Threshold Voltage
6.4.5 MOS Capacitance-Voltage Analysis

6.4, 6.4.1, 6.4.2, 6.4.3, 6.4.4, 6.4.5

Work functions


MOS Equilibrium Band Diagram



6.5 The MOS Field-Effect Transistor-Idealized Basic Operation
6.5.1 Output Characteristics
6.5.2 Transfer Characteristics
6.5.3 Mobility Models
6.5.6 Substrate bias effects

6.5, 6.5.1, 6.5.2, 6.5.3, 6.5.4, 6.5.5





The MOS Transistor-Scaling, short channel effects

6.5.4 Short Channel MOSFET i-V Characteristics
6.5.5 Control of Threshold Voltage
6.5.7 Subthreshold Characteristics
6.5.8 Equivalent Circuit for the MOSFET
6.5.9 MOSFET Scaling and Hot Electron Effects
6.5.10 Drain Induced Barrier lowering
6.5.11 Short Channel and Narrow Width Effect
6.5.12 Gate-Induced Drain Leakage




7.1 Fundamentals of BJT Operation
7.2 Amplification with BJTs
7.4 Minority Carrier Distributions and Terminal Currents
7.4.1 Solution of the Diffusion Equation in the Base Region
7.4.2 Evaluation of the Terminal Currents
7.4.3 Approximation of the Terminal Currents
7.4.4 Current Transfer Ratio




7.5 Generalized Biasing
7.5.1 The Coupled Diode Model
7.5.2 Charge Control Analysis
7.6 Switching
7.6.1 Cutoff
7.6.2 Saturation
7.6.3 The Switching Cycle
7.6.4 Specification for Switching Transistors




7.7 Other Important Effects
7.7.1 Drift in the Base Region
7.7.2 Base Narrowing
7.7.3 Avalanche Breakdown
7.7.4 Injection Level; Thermal Effects
7.7.5 Base Resistance and Emitter Crowding
7.7.6 Gummel-Poon Model
7.7.7 Kirk Effect

7.7, 7.7.1, 7.7.2, 7.7.3, 7.7.4, 7.7.5, 7.7.6, 7.7.7

Long Base Short Base Transistor

BJT Base Simulation

BJT Switching

BJT Equivalent Circuit

Ebers-Moll Model



3.1.5 Variation of Energy Bands with Alloy Composition
5.8 Heterojunctions
8.1 Photodiodes
8.1.1 Current and Voltage in an Illuminated Junction
8.1.2 Solar Cells
8.1.3 Photodetectors
8.2 Light-Emitting Diodes

3.1.5, 5.8, 8.1, 8.1.1, 8.1.2, 8.1.3, 8.1.4, 8.2, 8.2.1, 8.2.2, 8.2.3

PIN Diode 1

PIN Diode 2



No additional reading on these topics

Optoelectronic Devices





Location and Time TBD


Top of page